Glossary K-Z


KBytes:
Kilobytes or 1,000 bytes.

LAN:
Abbreviation for local area network. It refers to the technology used to connect computers together. It assumes the computers are located within a few hundred feet of each other. For example, the computers in an office would be connected together with LAN technology.

LuraDocument®(*.LDF):
A wavelet based file format developed by LuraTech.

LuraDocument is a registered trademark of LuraTech.

macro:
A single instruction in a higher level language that results in a series of instructions in a lower level language.

It is different from a subroutine, because a macro implies the sub-instructions are in a different language.

macro language:
[First Definition] A language designed to write macro instructions (usually for another language).

[Second Definition] In the Pac-n-Zoom® system the macro language is a set of internal instructions for a specific application that allows a master script (such as Python, Pearl, Rexx, or others) to operate several applications as a single solution.

The Pac-n-Zoom program would be one application. Other applications must be modified to accept the script commands before they can use this system.

MBytes:
Megabytes or 1,000,000 bytes.

model building:
The process of putting data samples together to construct a model for rendering by another program. For example, a number of raster photographs could be used together to build a 3D model for an animation database.

MPEG:
An anacronym that stands for: Motion Picture Experts Group. It is usually associated with compressing audio and video files.

noise:
Unwanted aberrations and distortion in an electronic signal. Some common types of electronic noise are clock coupling, color flutter, dark current, Johnson noise, among many others.

non-von-Neumann computer:
Almost all computers use von Neumann architecture which uses separate instructions and data. A non-von-Neumann computer is any computer where the data is the instructions.

NTSC:
An abbreviation for National Television Standards Committee. It is the conventional television signal broadcasted in the United States and some other countries.

Nyquist Sampling Theorem:
Also known as "Nyquist Theorem" and "Shannon Sampling Theorem". It was written by Nyquist in 1928 and mathematically proven by Shannon in 1949. As it applies to us, an artifact needs to be sampled at least twice or the picture will be distorted. Therefore, orphan pixels have been proven to be unreliable because the final constellation of pixels (needed for extraction) is impossible.

OCR:
An abbreviation for optical character recognition. OCR is a computer reading and recognizing text in a document.

wave front optics:
In physics, wave front optics are optics that deal with waves of light. On this site, wave front optics refer to those optics that try to focus a picture (as opposed to optics that manipulate light without attempting to reach a focus - for example the concentration or the dispersion of light). The variation from the optimal focus causes distortions which Pac-n-Zoom Pre.View partially corrects.

orphan:
A pixel with no adjacent neighbor of the same color.

Pac-n-Zoom data file:
A data file format that is specific to the Pac-n-Zoom program. Its extension is *.PNZ.

pipe:
A mechanism that allows memory contents to be moved or shared between progams. The process is called piping.

pitch:
The size of a text character (such as 10 or 12)

pixel:
A single picture element such as a dot on a page or a point of light on computer screen.

PNG:
An open sourced statistical compressor (pronounced ping) and named after its file extension.

polyline:
A series of lines that are connected end to end (in mathematics it called a polygonal chain). They can be used to define the border of blob.

primary color:
A color used to build other colors. In pigments (i.e., printing), four primary colors are usually used. They consist of magenta (purplish red), cyan (greenish blue), yellow, and black, where black is used more for economy and contrast than as a building block. In light (i.e., computer monitors and television), red, green, and blue are usually used.

Primary colors are more of an artistical approximation than a scientific building block.

primitive vector:
The vector data outputted from the data tagger. The primitive vector can be reduced to raster or promoted to another vector type.

process controller:
In Pac-n-Zoom the process controller is a piece of software that takes the I/O from the master script and distributes it among the client processes. The process contoller allows Pac-n-Zoom or other enabled software to be controlled by the master script. In other words, the process controller allows Pac-n-Zoom to be easily integrated into an existing software design without recompilation.

program memory:
This memory is fixed in size at the compile time. It is usually a static or a global. Since they have an exact size, they are placed within a section of the final linked executable file.

raster data:
Data represented by a series of dots or pixels. To the computer, the dots are all disconnected, therefore the ability to extract information from the data is usually limited to the Fourier and associated transforms.

ray tracing:
A computer simulation of light used to design optics and to enhance vector data.

region:
A group of pixels that need to be taken together to extract a feature. As an example, consider a black letter "A" on a white background. The feature is the letter "A". The extraction we require is recognition. The "A" is considered to be black, but it could be 20 different shades of black. A region would include all 20 shades of black.

remote control:
A computer program that allows a remote user to operate a computer over a computer network.

renderable vector:
Vector data that can be accurately processed by a mathematical routine.

resolution enhancement:
The process of creating more dots or pixels in raster data. The number of artifacts remains the same, but the grain of the picture is finer.

segment:
[First Definition] Pac-n-Zoom comes with a system for using multiple programs together (provided that their interface is extended). Instructions and data can be stored in this simple system. A segment is used to store either instructions or data inside of a frame.

[Second Definition] The process of performing segmentation.

segmentation:
The process of grouping pixels that are nearly the same color into regions and blobs.

slew rate:
In an image, the maximum speed of pixel to pixel change. For example, a black to white border might take several pixels to transition. The slew rate would be the most change between any two pixels of the transition.

stack memory:
This is memory that is allocated for a process. It is generally used when a function is called. The calling function's state is stored on the stack until the function is returned.

solution provider:
An entity that provides a computing solution. The most common type of a solution provider is a value added reseller (VAR), but consultants, integrators, distributors, and other IT professionals (or amateurs) might also be solution provides.

statistical compressor:
A compression algorithm that uses probabilistic analysis. One of the more common statistical compressors uses a binary tree and a tagging system.

steepest slopes:
When image color changes have a high degree of contrast, it usually takes several image pixels for the change to occur. For example a steady state color (plateau) might change over several pixels (slope) before another plateau is reached. The steepest slope is the pixel that has the most pixel to pixel change. If more than one pixel has the same change, the pixel that is furtherest away from the plateaus (or most central to the slope) is the steepest slope. If two pixels tie in centrality, the west pixel is the steepest slope.

The steepest slopes are the position of the actual border before transition distortion clouded the image while it was being captured.

stitching:
The process of putting data samples together into an aggregate data set. For example, several photographs might be stitched together to make a larger photograph or to construct a panoramic view.

template matching:
The process of comparing one shape to another on a pixel by pixel basis. The number of pixels that match between the shapes determine whether the shapes match.

text editor:
A computer program that is specifically designed to edit text.

threshold segmentation:
Segmentation that uses absolute color to determine the blob a pixel resides in. For example, if black text were on white paper, any pixel darker than gray might be considered black (the foreground), and any pixel lighter than gray might be considered white (the background).

TIF:
A compression system know as the tagged information file format (TIF or TIFF) used mostly in scanning and FAXing. A *.TIF can have one of several different compression systems. For example, the bi-tonal *.TIF G4 and G3 or TIFF G4 and TIFF G3 are the standards in the document handling and FAX industries respectively.

transform compressor:
A compression algorithm that uses a mathematical transform. The most common transform is the discrete cosine transform which is closely related to the Fourier Transform.

transition:
A change in colors. A place where one color changes to another.

transition distortion: Transition Distortion

Unwanted artifacts introduced into an image along the edge of a blob usually by sampling errors as graphically demonstrated here.

vector data:
Data represented in the form of mathematical equations.

vectorization:
The process of changing data, that is represented by a series of dots, into mathematical equations.

VHS:
An abbreviation for Video Home System. VHS video tape has quality comparable to NTSC video.

video field:
A term used to describe a part (usually one half) of a video image. In NTSC (the conventional American television signal), two video fields are interlaced together to compose one video image (where a video image is usually referred to as a video frame).

video frame:
A term used to describe one video image. In NTSC (the conventional American television signal), two video fields are interlaced together to compose one video frame.

virus filter:
A program that attempts to eliminate computer viruses from the computer system.

wavelet:
A set of mathematics that is normally used as a geometrical image compressor.


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